When it comes to skin cancer, the more you know, the better protected you can be. Spring, with all of its outdoor activities, is a great time to learn more about this all-too-common and often preventable form of cancer.
Identifying Skin Cancer
Early detection and treatment is key for melanoma treatment. You should perform a full-body self-exam each month to become familiar with your skin and to identify any skin changes that could signal skin cancer. You can download a "body mole map" from the American Academy of Dermatology (AAD) to learn how to examine your skin and what to look for. If you see anything unusual, a mole or spot that is growing, unusual, bleeding or not like the others, see a dermatologist.
You can also get a free skin cancer screening through the AAD. The AAD offers free skin cancer screenings throughout the United States, usually in the spring. You can sign up to be notified via email when the next free screening will take place in your area.
Three Common Skin Cancer Types
- Basal cell carcinoma- A slow-growing cancer in the layer just underneath the epidermis, or outer layer of the skin where the basal cells are located. Basal cell carcinoma seldom spreads to other parts of the body.
- Squamous cell carcinoma- Rarer than basal cell cancer, squamous cell carcinoma is in the epidermis. It spreads more often than basal cell carcinoma.
- Melanoma- The most serious type of skin cancer, it occurs when the melanocytes, the pigment cells in the lower part of the epidermis, become malignant, meaning that they start dividing uncontrollably. If it spreads to the lymph nodes, it may also reach other parts of the body, such as the liver, lungs or brain. In such cases, the disease is called metastatic melanoma.
If you've been diagnosed with skin cancer, your doctor will most likely remove the tumor and some of the surrounding tissue via (surgical excision) or a special procedure called Mohs micrographic surgery. If you have melanoma, your doctor may perform a a sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) to help determine the stage.
Then, depending on the type of cancer, its stage and other factors, your doctor may recommend additional treatment. This can include:
- Radiation therapy, using radiation that kill the cancer cells (and some normal cells)
- Chemotherapy, using drugs to kill or slow down the cancer cell growth
- Photodynamic therapy (PDT), using a drug and type of laser light to kill cancer cells
- Biologic therapy, which boosts your body's own ability to fight cancer
- Lymphadenectomy, which surgically removes lymph nodes
- Immunotherapy, which helps the patient's immune system fight the cancer
- Targeted therapy, using drugs that block specific “on switches” driving cancer growth
- Adoptive T-cell therapy, using T-cells from the patient to fight the cancer
You might also be a candidate for participation in a clinical trial, depending on the type of skin cancer you have. Go to ClinicalTrials.gov and type in "skin cancer" in the Search for Studies box to learn what trials are actively recruiting and search for trials at Sarah Cannon Research Institute.
If you have been diagnosed with skin cancer, follow your doctor's recommendations for regular check-ups. This will help ensure that any new cases of skin cancer, or a recurrence of one that has been treated, is caught early enough.